Ethical leaders have external reference points and guiding principles. They have a pole star that they navigate by and criteria against which they measure each and every decision and action.
These external reference points come from study and observation.
They come from philosophy, religion, psychology, biography, and history. They come from non-fiction and fiction. They come from doing the hard work of thinking, drawing conclusions, and taking stands.
These are deep resources to draw on when making difficult decisions. These are how values are created that can be lived by. People deserve to be led by leaders with these capacities, reserves, and ballast.